The city of Cordoba – or Cordova – has experienced many phases during it’s existence. It is located in valley of Quadalquivir-river, where climate is warm and land fruitful. As many cities in Spain also Cordoba was first founded by Carthagians. When Hamilcar Barca was conquering Hispania for Carthage, he renamed old settlements beside Quadalquivir to “Kartuba” honoring with the name the Numidian commander – Juba – whi had died nearby in battle. Then in the second Punic war Kartuba was taken by Romans.

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Old foundation of Roman bridge nearby old town.

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Tower of Calahorra in the end of Roman bridge builded by Almohad muslims.

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In Roman times there were not lemon trees in Spain. Now city is full of orange- and lemon trees.

Roman times
BC 169 a new Roman colony was based beside old Iberian settlement by the Roman consul Marcus Claudius Marcellus. It is known that there were a Roman forum in the city as also many other Roman buildings like temples.

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Ruins of Roman temple in old town.

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Model of temple in arhceological museum in Cordoba.

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Ruins of foundation of Roman building in archeological museum.

In 100 BC somebody buried a treasure – the famous Cordoba Treasure – in Cordoba outskirts where it was found in beginning of 1900. It consisted Celtic artefacts and Roman coins around 100 BC. After some bargains treasure is now to see in the British Museum.

At the time of Roman Rebublic Cordoba was the capital city of Hispania Ulterior. Then later on during Roman Empire city was capital of Hispania Baetica. Very famous Romans were philosopher Seneca the Younger and orator Seneca the Elder. Also a poet Lucan came from Roman Cordoba.

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Nice Roman statue from archeological museum.

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Roman writing in stone in archeological museum.

After Roman times
Rome hold Hispania nearly seven hundred years and after their empire collapsed, it left a huge empty space which was to be filled with something. First Byzantine hold the region short time and then little over hundred years it was hold by Visigoth. But their time ended very soon when Arabic conquerers – mainly Berbers – came from north Africa and conquered whole Spain in couple years at beginning of 700 AD.

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Moorish type arches in palace of Medinat Azharat near Cordoba.

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Arabic writing from Muslim times – now inside mosque of Cordoba.

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Very very nice artwork from famous mosque of Cordoba. One can say that Muslims created own type of building architecture in different cities of Al Andalus.

When Spain was conquered by muslims, is was ruled from Cordoba for 300 hundred years. At that time Cordoba was probably most populated city in Europe and richies flowed from all “Al Andalus” into the city. Therefore they were able to build great buildings – like mosque of Cordoba – and palace cities like Medina Azhara.

Medina Azhara
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Once Caliphate of Cordoba was ruled from here. This City palace is looking over Quadalquivir-valley only couple kilometers from Cordoba.

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The layout of Medinat Azhara. It was build by Abd-ar-Rahman III al-Nasir РUmayyad Caliph of Córdoba. At his time nearly whole Spain was ruled by strong muslim reign and their army was superior.

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Toilet inside palace witness from developed society.

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As well the pipelines inside building. Probably they had many comfortable solutions inside palace.

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Arches from Medina Azhara.

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Artwork of smithery of Medina Azhara. A very expensive one!

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Arches and arches again – but I like them.

Mezquita
Originally this building was a Visigoth church but when Abd ar-Rahman I escaped from palace revolution of Damaskos and took reign of Al-Andalus, he started to build a mosque from half of the church. Then later on other muslim rulers expanded it at least four times.

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Famous arches of mosque of Cordoba – unique style in the world! Probably in some extent mosque of Damaskos was used as paragon.

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Here under mosque roof is the forest of columns – robbed from Roman and Visigoth houses around Cordoba. Luckily mosque was left for afterworld to see.

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One can only wonder the huge area of mosque and the forest of columns. Red-white-arches – in two layers – look marvellous. One can only wonder the beautiful lines and corridors under arches inside the mosque – Mezquita in local language. Mastermind designing!

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The edifice also has a richly gilded prayer niche or mihrab. One of the most beautiful artworks inside mosque. Brilliant!

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Here different kind of arches inside mosque – also very very beautiful and unique.

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Also nice arches – white this time – inside mosque.

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Facade of mosque – little bit weared but still one can see masterpieces of art.

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Here nice courty-yard inside great mosque of Cordoba. There are small channels between trees to irrigate their roots. Muslims builded very intelligent irrigation systems all over Al Andalus.

Muslim bathouse
In every muslim city there was an alcazaba – a muslim fortress and palace. And there were always as well bathhouse with open star-like openings in roof. By the way – there still is arabic bathouse in Cordoba. But in different building.
DSC01491 There are still some remnants of old muslim bathhouse.

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Old walls of bathouse.

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Columns of bathouse – cold and warm pools.

DSC01493Once bathhouse was part of muslim alcazaba.

Christian reconquista
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In year 1236 muslim city of Cordoba fell to Ferdinand III – king of Castile and Leon. Of course they changed many things and builded new houses – and teared apart many muslim structures.

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Fortress of Christian kings – partly made over muslim alcazaba – muslim castle.

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Nice view over defence tower.

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Scenery high above from defence tower over gardens and pools.

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Here – in times of reconquista – there was always pools, fountains and gardens beside castles.

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Nice trees and long pool inside gardens of alcazar.

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Iron lady of Castile and Leon – Isabella. Main figures with Ferdinand securing reconquista.

Today’s Cordoba
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Narrow streets of Cordoba.

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Still newer houses have very nice muslim type decorations.

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Maimonides – a judish scolar from Cordoba who found himself even physician of Saladdin. Still sitting on the streets of Cordoba – after so many hundred years.

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